UPSC Mains 2015 question papers

Essay paper:

[espro-slider id=2039]

Write two essays, choosing one from each of the following Section A and B in about 1000-1200 words each.

Total Marks : 250



किसी को अनुदान देने से, उसके काम में हाथ बटाना बेहतर है|

Ans. A Brief Outline:- To give people sustainable livelihood than mere subsidies is better. It is better to teach one how to fish than giving a fish. The approach must be more towards sustainability and not adhoc. In terms of Governance, the focus has to be on Education, Health etc. than Subsidy.. Read more plz wait..


फुर्तीला किन्तु संतुलित व्यक्ति ही दौड़ में विजयी होता है|

Ans. A Brief Outline:- It not only enough to be quick but one needs to be steady also. Along with quick action a consistent action pays. In case of administrator, one needs to act quickly and steadily. Quickness and steadiness must complement each other. Read more plz wait..


किसी संस्था का चरित्र चित्रण, उसके नेतृत्व में प्रतिबिंबित होता है|

Ans. we can say that the CHARACTER OF AN INSTITUTION IS REFLECTED IN ITS LEADER. Because all plannings, vision, procedure, rules, structure, decision making, policy formulation etc. decided by the leader. But the role of members are also very important. without members views, works etc. leader can’t take any decisions so members are also important part of institution bulding. Leadership is probably the most important role, and provides the identity and purpose within the institution. Other roles are determined by the hierarchy and the members in fulfilling the agenda and purpose of the institution. Leadership is the relationship between an individual and a group built around some common interest and behaving in a manner directed or determined by him; a leader who moves in a particular direction and succeed in inducing others to follow him; and one acting leader in a group having common interest, purpose and goals and influences the effort of the group towards achievement of the goal I think institutions operate within guidelines and from those guidelines people act in a certain manner. Its just like customer service etc.

Some of the roles an institution leader will assume are those that pertain to

(I) as initiator and agent of change and growth;

(ii) a planner, organizer, and director;

(iii) a comptroller, so that whenever problem arise and errors are committed, he could intervene and help institution members correct them;

(iv) a coordinator who coordinates all program and activities of the school and make all these things in harmony; and a supervisor and an evaluator to identify, strong and weak points of members to a point of building and improving them, respectively.

People expect a certain level of treatment and rights to be respected especially when money is involved and to attract the consumers they need to hit targets and they have ways of doing that. All institutions operate within guidelines which also act like a belief system to get what they want from life and to keep the ‘majority’ of people happy. The characteristics in (people) i think are: Linear thinking, lack of emotion, not always open to new methods of doing things, convincing you their way is best and that you need to trust their methods.

Institutions are made up of individuals brought together to enable it to achieve its mission. The Institutions structure will determine how these individuals work together in teams and how they relate to one another. For an institution to be successful, it is important that every individual in the organisation is working towards the same goal. Leaders have an important role to play in co-ordinating and integrating the activities of these individuals and teams, ensuring that they are aware of the institution’s priorities and that they are working towards them. Leaders achieve this not only through the authority delegated to them within the organisation’s hierarchy, but also by being charismatic, knowledgeable and respected leaders who inspire and motivate.

Four hypotheses are presented;

(1) leadership strategies in any one sociocultural setting will have strong underlying similarities,

(2) as an organization changes over time, strategies of leadership will also change,

(3) organizations performing the same tasks-but based on different substantive principles-will exhibit different strategies of leadership, and

(4) occupational and organizational subgroups based on distinctive norms will exhibit similar leadership styles across organizations, and will differ from other subgroups within a single organization.

Leadership qualities

Leadership is concerned with the influencing of the actions and attitudes of others ensuring that everyone is following a common goal. Within an organisational setting, the power of a leader to influence others is established within the organisational structure. However, positional power does not necessary mean that others will follow or that they will follow willingly. It is therefore important that the leader has certain characteristics and abilities.

This needs to be consistent with the needs of the organisation and the needs of the team. The most effective leadership style is an approach that is both considerate and compassionate to the workforce and focused on achieving organisational objectives by getting the job done, to the right specification and within the correct timescales.The style of the leader has a significant impact upon the team. The leader is responsible for bringing together all of the individual skills and abilities for the collective benefit of the team. The leader must ensure that the team are clear about their roles and responsibilities and deal with any conflicting situations as they arise. The leader must be fair to all the individuals that make up the team so that the team will have respect for the leader and feel that all members are treated equally.etc..

Democratic or participative leader The leader consults with subordinates on proposal actions and decisions and encourages participation from them; the leader does not take action without the subordinates’ concurrence; the leader is there to assist, suggest, communicate and being aware of problems for solution; involves subordinates in decision-making so that they feel jointly responsible for the goals purposes and projects.

Elements of Leadership

The first element of leadership is power. Power is differentiated by authority. Power is the ability of an individual to induce or influence the beliefs, action of other persons or group of persons; and authority is the right in a position of the person to exercise discretion in making decision affecting others.

The second element of leadership is basically understanding of people. The manager should know the motivation theory and is able to relate it into meaningful practice.

The third element is the ability to inspire followers to apply their full capabilities to an undertaking. Inspiration emanates from group head that may give rise to devotion, commitment and loyalty, and in effect of a strong desire on the subordinates to promote what they want the leaders to accomplish for the organization.

The fourth element of leadership is the style of the leader and the climate he develops.

Decision-making Process

As head of an institution, a leader function can be described as difficult considering of so many interacting forces that need to be dealt with. As he carries on his responsibilities, specifically the decision that needs to be made from time to time, he can not avoid that some group of people are adversely affected and others are favored. This brings a curse situation of “Damned, if you do it; and Damned, if you don’t.” In such situation, he needs to make up his mind that on what has to be done has to be done and it is to be done. He has to make a decision and these decisions may concern on material and facilities, personnel, curriculum, finance and budget and in other school aspect.

Models of decision-making Process.The conventional method of decision-making is a time known process, consisting of nine (9) consecutive steps…

(I) Recognition of a problem; (ii) collection of data; (iii) classification and analysis; (iv) inventory of means; (v) listing of alternatives; (vi) evaluation of alternatives; (vii) decision; (viii) implementation etc.

Planning Process

Planning can be described as a process of stating the missions, objectives and the action to achieve them; a process that begins with objectives, a well defined strategies, policies, procedure or a detailed plan to achieve them; a definition of all work requirements so that each work participants will be able to identify the work required; and determine what needs to be done by whom and when in order to fulfill one’s assigned responsibility. As a process, planning determines in advance what needs to be done in order to achieve a particular goal, how it should be done, when it should be done, and who should do it. It bridges the gap from where we are now to where we want to go. 

Organizing a plan encompasses (I) vision, (ii) purpose or mission, (iii) goals and objectives, (iv) strategies, (v) policies, (vi) procedure, (vii) rules, (viii) programs, and (ix) budgets. Vision It is a way of seeing or concerning what your school or organization wants to create or achieve. It sets up the school organization philosophy, belief, and principles.

we can say that the CHARACTER OF AN INSTITUTION IS REFLECTED IN ITS LEADER. Because all plannings, vision, procedure, rules, structure, decision making, policy formulation etc. decided by the leader. But the role of members are also very important. without members views, works etc. leader can’t take any decisions so members are also important part of institution bulding.

In short, “A leader one who knows the way, goes the way and shows the way” – John C Maxwell. The leader sets the vision for the organisation. He is the source of energy and the face of the organisation. He is the embodiment of the organisation.He symbolizes the values of the organisation.


मूल्यों से वंचित शिक्षा , जैसी अभी उपयोगी है, व्यक्ति को अधिक चतुर बनाने जैसी लगती है|

Ans. A Brief Outline:- Education basically refers to inculcation of values, without values what happens acquiring knowledge and skills. It is one’s values which determine how he utilizes his knowledge and skill-Malignant or benign to the society. For instance, the knowledge and skill of an organized criminal or terrorist never benefit the society. In case of administration also a skillful but corrupt official cleverly escapes the system using his knowledge. Read more plz wait..



प्रोद्योगिकी , मानवशक्ति को विस्थापित नहीं कर सकती |

Ans. A Brief Outline:- Technology can only supplement and enable the manpower. It can enhance the efficiency and help manpower to improve the efficiency but it is not a replacement. For instance, use of AV Tools in a classroom can improve the delivery of the teacher and enhance the understanding of the students but the human effort of the teacher is inevitable.In the present context, it is evidence from the failure of technology based classrooms etc. Most of the human activities are wrought with human factor which no technology can replace. Read more plz wait…


भारत के सम्मुख संकट – नैतिक या आर्थिक|

Ans. A Brief Outline:- Perhaps BOTH. Since India is a stratified society with multiple socio-economic strata there are different sections whose even basic needs or not satisfied. On the one hand, Economy grows – India is the largest producer of Food grains, Milk, Vegetable and Fruits – on the other these don’t percolate down. Still 1/3rd of the population suffer to manage one square meal a day. There is also market degeneration of values. The increasing number of scandals, their terrifically huge size and the rampant corruption with increasing crimes are evidences. Consumerism as an value has taken over the society leading to consumption with greed. (One can also argue that India suffers from NEITHER)


वे सपने जो भारत को सोने न दें |

Ans. A Brief Outline:- The above statement given by APJ Kalam “Dream is not one you see when you sleep, but one that does not let you sleep”. The dreams you can say as development making India a developed society, taping the demographic dividend, making India a livable place- corruption free, pollution free and a good governed society which respect dignity of human being, respect for women and guaranteed rights for children.


क्या पूँजीवाद द्वारा समायेशित विकास हो पाना संभव है |

ANS:- You can write in BOTH ways.. Capitalism as a concept is against inclusive growth however, it provides everyone an opportunity for growth thereby the process becomes inclusive but the benefit is in proportion to the contribution and other factors like the capacity to influence the process which makes it non-inclusive. Yes, inclusive growth, the growth that involves everyone with the ability to grow, is possible when capitalism is subjugated to real freedom. A form of freedom that is the opposite to a monism of freedom we deploy today. So, today our bronze-age version of capitalism stuffed with oligarchic controls does not allow for such inclusive growth. The exact reason for our economic problems that are not going away unless we unleash such monism of freedom. With the improper implementation of capitalism we deploy today the dice are not just loaded to be in favor of the rich, instead they are also loaded in favor of those who are willing to enslave themselves to the aforementioned oligarchic controls. So, anyone can “succeed” in our current version of capitalism as long as you are willing and able to enslave yourself to oligarchic controlled systems set before you, quite the opposite of the freedom required to evolve to the best of our individual and collective ability.

A system of free enterprise, which is often mistakenly referred to as capitalism, is the only way in which inclusive growth is possible. In such a system, a person can make money only by producing goods and services that other people want. And in the process they help other people get rich, namely the investors who invest in business, the people who lend them money through their banks, the workers who get jobs, and consumers who benefit from using their product (for example, you probably use a computer at your job, meaning the manufacturer and the software developers make money, but only by helping you make money). On the other hand, in a socialistic system, whose proponents claim that it is inclusive, you can only get rich if you have connections to politicians or high level government officials, as all the means of production are either fully controlled or heavily regulated by the government. It is this socialistic, government controlled economy which is in fact, rigged in the favour of the rich and powerful.

A lot depends on what you mean by “inclusive growth.” The historical record has been that, on average across countries, economic growth leaves the degree of inequality within countries roughly unchanged – that is, incomes of households in different segments of the income distribution tend to grow (on average) at roughly the same proportional rate – which of course implies that richer people  experience larger absolute gains than poorer people. I call that “inclusive” growth, but some will disagree and demand that that label only be applied to cases where the absolute gains to the poor equal or exceed those going to the rich. Such cases are few and far between.

There’s a lot of variation around this average, with some countries becoming more equal and others becoming less so. Recent research at the IMF suggests that the degree of inequality in schooling has a powerful impact on the degree of income inequality. Otherwise, it hasn’t been easy to identify strong correlates of changes in inequality at the country level. In any case, most of the growth that has taken place in the world over the past several decades has been more-or-less the result of capitalism, so in that sense, yes indeed, capitalism is completely consistent with inclusive growth.

So far I’ve been talking only about changes in inequality within particular countries. A bigger deal – certainly for the global poor – has been the enormous reduction in inequality at the global level, especially as incomes in large Asian countries – China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, etc. – have grown faster than incomes in the advanced countries. And here again, most of that faster growth has taken place as a result of the (partial) embrace of markets by those large countries. Changes in inequality within those countries have been mixed – inequality has shot up in China even as the share of Chinese in extreme poverty has plummeted.

growth has been the main source of reductions in world poverty, with changes in inequality helping in some cases, and slowing the rate of progress in others. Certainly none of the countries where the most rapid progress in reducing poverty has been made have become less capitalist, and by any reasonable standard, capitalism has made large inroads in the economies of China and Vietnam, despite significant state control in each.

critique remark resources which are scare will be in the hand of capitalists only, they produce (goods & services) what is demanded in the market, capitalist ultimate aim is to make maximum profit by production, if in that capitalist economy income inequality already, maximum chance are this inequality will be more (rich more richer & poor more poorer) .

Being rich or being poor is a choice one makes in life. If money is the sole criterion which this is ascertained then those who want to make it any which way the opportunity is available everywhere. Some choose to be rich accepting the consequences of their actions and some decide to be passive and cannot accept the consequences because of high faith in their existence. If one look at history of India from independence, the life of poor has improved after opening up the economy than till then, from independence. So as you feel the dice is going to fall the same, what matter is if they labor decide to improve their life and risk taking abilities, then they can have better opportunities in a free market than in socialist economy. Read more please wait.

What do you think?

0 points
Upvote Downvote


Leave a Reply

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *





Environment & Ecology For IAS Main’s & PT 2015-16

UPSC Mains 2015 General Studies Paper 1 and 2 with answers